lunes, 1 de febrero de 2016

Listening test: Baseball and racism

Listen to this report on baseball player Jackie Robinson and choose the option A, B or C which best completes each sentence. 0 is an example.

0. Example:
A. have always been allowed to play in the major baseball leagues.
B. were excluded to play because of a racist incident.
C. weren’t allowed to play until Jacki Robinson’s time.

1. Jackie Robinson
A. left the army after the war.
B. had a racist incident at university.
C. had problems with the law while he was in the army.

2. Jackie Robinson
A. attracted the attention of a Washington team manager.
B. didn’t like the busy life of baseball players.
C. signed on a team with the Negro Leagues while still at the army.

3. In the minor league team Robinson
A. didn’t stay in the same room as his team mates.
B. had to deal with difficult situations.
C. only played the home matches.

4. In this team Robinson
A. played for three years.
B. started badly, but then got better.
C. was the first black player since 1880.

5. Robinson received the most abuse from
A. fans.
B. other players.
C. the media.

6. He retired because
A. he had been elected for a political position.
B. he lacked the motivation to keep playing.
C. his health was not good.

7. After leaving baseball Robinson
A. became a TV personality.
B. did religious work.
C. got involved in social causes.

Jackie Robinson was not the first African-American to play in the major leagues; there were a handful of black baseball players at the end of the nineteenth century. However, in 1884, a famous player named Cap Anson refused to play any team with a black player on its roster. The pressure from Anson and other white players influenced managers and team owners, and the end result was the effective exclusion of African-Americans from major league baseball for over sixty years. Separate "Negro Leagues” were created for them to play.
In college, Robinson had played football, basketball, track, and baseball, and one newspaper described his athletic prowess as "outstanding." After graduating, he served in the army, where an incident of racism derailed his military career. After refusing a bus driver's request to move to the back of the bus, Robinson was taken into custody by police and interrogated with racist questions. When he confronted the officer about this, he was charged with insubordination. Although he was acquitted, the trial prevented him from being deployed overseas – and he eventually left the military and signed on with a team in the Negro Leagues.
Robinson received a decent salary, but he became frustrated with the hectic travel schedule that prevented him from seeing his girlfriend, Rachel, who he would later marry. Robinson attracted the attention of the manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, who contracted him to play on a minor league team. 
There were still hurdles to overcome - Robinson was not allowed to stay at the same hotel as his teammates, and several games in which he was scheduled to play were abruptly cancelled by the local authorities.
His season got off to a mediocre start, but improved greatly after he changed to a different position in the field. The following year, he was called up to the major leagues and made his debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947, thus becoming the first player since 1880 to openly break the colour line in baseball.
Robinson received mixed reviews from the media, but was generally accepted by the public - and black fans began flocking to the Dodgers' games. However, some of his own teammates insinuated that they would rather sit out than play alongside him. He was also taunted by members of opposing teams, and became the target for some rough physical play. Despite the abuse, Robinson’s stellar performance earned him the Rookie of the Year Award for the all-around best first-year player.
Robinson's career with the Dodgers lasted ten years, and he retired after his health began to deteriorate, later being diagnosed with diabetes. The Dodgers honoured him by retiring his uniform number, meaning no other player on the team could ever use Jackie Robinson's famous 42 - and he became the first black player to be elected to the baseball Hall of Fame.
Later in life, Robinson served as a commentator and also became involved in politics and business. He worked to advance the cause of black people in sports, commerce, and industry, and also established a construction company to build houses for poor families. Both his breaking of the colour barrier and his professional success were monumental steps forward in the battle for civil rights.

KEY: 1C 2B 3B 4B 5B 6C 7C